Pastoral Culture

  • Performing arts: games, masques, pastoral dance
  • Material culture: dress, art
  • Music: pastoral opera, madrigal
  • Gardening: Palladian villa
  • Technology: Development of the steam engine by James Watt (1769) and others: the invention of the Spinning Jenny by James Hargreaves in 1764
  • Law: diverse Enclosure Acts between 1750 and 1845 (General Enclosure Act): rights that people once held, to graze animals on these areas when not planted by crops, were being denied.